Engine oil regeneration

At least once a year each owner of motor transport should change oil in the engine of the iron horse. As a result, individuals and businesses accumulate a large amount of processed product that needs to be disposed of or recycled in some way. This problem, given the ever-increasing fleet of cars, has become very urgent today.

Регенерация отработанного масла

What is engine oil, the need for its use

Operation of power units is impossible without the use of oil to lubricate its moving parts. This liquid forms a film that protects the engine components from dry friction and premature wear.

In addition, the oil protects the metal parts of the engine from corrosion and exposure to harmful compounds usually formed during operation of the motor.

Regardless of the type of final product (there are mineral, synthetic or semi-synthetic types of lubricating fluids), the base oil is produced by distillation of crude oil. In the future, the semi-finished product can be sent for further processing, various additives are introduced to improve the characteristics.

engine oil Regeneration

The amount of oil required to fill the engine is determined by the technical characteristics of the vehicle. The dependence of the lubricant volume on the motor type is clearly shown in the photo.

Regeneration of used oils

To power unit reliably served for many years, the oil in it must be periodically changed. This is due to the fact that during the operation of the motor there is a change in the characteristics of the lubricating fluid, leading to the impossibility of its further use.

The frequency of replacement depends on the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer. As a rule, it is determined by the mileage of the car. Usually it is recommended to change the oil after 7.5, 10 or 15 thousand kilometers.

But in any case, this operation is carried out at least once a year. Even if the car stood all year without movement. This is due to the loss of material properties in contact with air, metal and rubber parts of the motor.

Waste oil remains not only in car parks and garages, it accumulates in large quantities in various industries and power plants.

By the way, in addition to direct engine oil periodic replacement and other liquids necessary for the operation of vehicles and industrial equipment: transmission and brake fluids, industrial lubricants, etc.

Regeneration of used engine oil

As a result, after replacing the lubricating fluid, a large amount of waste product remains, which must be disposed of in some way. World oil consumption is about 60 million tons per year.

Disposal of engine oil

Waste oil is a hazardous waste. It can cause a significant threat to human health and nature, getting into the soil, surface and groundwater.

Moreover, this liquid is even more dangerous than the oil from which it is produced, since it consists of various additives, and various impurities and pollutants are formed during operation.

The used oil is insoluble, it is chemically stable, it may contain toxic compounds and heavy metals. Naturally, it decomposes for a long time.

Legislative acts in Russia collection and processing of waste oil as a hazardous waste, in principle, is regulated. It is forbidden to bury it in water and earth, as well as burning without removing the additives present in the composition.

Specialized organizations that have a license for this kind of activity, the collection and disposal of waste oil. However, despite the measures taken, part of it simply merges into the sewers, land or water bodies, polluting our habitat.

engine oil Disposal

The low efficiency of measures aimed at improving the situation in the field of utilization of motor oil is due to several reasons:

  • lack of sufficient responsibility of owners of waste materials and interest in their processing;
  • poor based testing;
  • lack of coordination of market participants;
  • high cost of infrastructure required for collection and disposal;
  • insufficiently developed ecological culture of our citizens.

Only a small percentage (not more than 20%) of the end-of-life product in our country goes for processing.

note. In North America and Western Europe, the collection and processing of spent petroleum products is regulated at the legislative level.

For example, in developed European countries, up to 90% of waste oil products are regenerated, which is provided by a developed infrastructure.

However, the measures taken by the state to solve the problem allow us to hope that in the near future our state will develop a working business scheme for processing the used product.

Today, there are several ways to reuse used oil. For example, dehydration or thermal cracking. One of the most preferable for economic and environmental reasons is its regeneration, providing partial or complete restoration of the quality indicators of secondary raw materials.

Regeneration

This method makes it possible to obtain a product intended for reuse and practically does not differ in its characteristics from oil produced from crude oil.

Thus, the liquid purified from oxidation products, dirt and other impurities, which is a valuable raw material, can be used for its intended purpose again.

Regeneration, that is, the recovery of used engine oil, allows you to remove from it chemical precipitate, mechanical inclusions, gases, water condensate, acids and other impurities, as well as to give the purified product the original color and smell.

The result is a base oil. This material after compounding and adding additives can be used as motor, transmission, hydraulic oil and other types of lubricants. In addition, the purified liquid is used in the manufacture of asphalt.

To obtain a product that has the necessary physical and chemical characteristics, several methods are used.

Physical and mechanical methods of regeneration

With these methods, it is possible in a small enterprise to organize the production of oil of rather low quality, which can be used to lubricate equipment components.

Waste oil regeneration methods

Settling

The purpose of this method is the deposition of heavy inclusions of working at the bottom of the oil sump. The method is the cheapest, since there is no need to use expensive equipment, but its implementation takes time, and significant.

In addition, fine cleaning in this case will not work. Particles with the same oil specific gravity, in it still. As a result, the quality of the product purified by the method of settling leaves much to be desired.

This method can be used only as one of the stages of recovery of the waste liquid.

The process is carried out in special oil settlers. To speed it up, temperature treatment can be used, that is, heating the liquid to about 85 - 90 degrees.

Filtering

Multi-stage filtration, which involves a step-by-step cleaning of the liquid: first rough, and then thin, allows you to clean the waste material from large and small inclusions, as well as from water. For filtration, grids, gaskets, filters made of nanomaterials and composite are used.

Centrifugation

If the final product should be a quality material, without this process will not work. For its implementation, it is necessary to have rather expensive equipment, which is usually problematic for small enterprises.

used engine oil Disposal

The operation of the centrifuge is based on the action of centrifugal force, which allows to divide the waste liquid into different fractions. At the same time, it is possible to remove up to 90% of impurities from the oil and conduct dehydration.

Physico-chemical methods of regeneration

To clean the used engine oil in this case, chemicals added to the liquid are used. This occurs or dissolution of impurities, or change their physical and chemical characteristics. The method is quite common because of its budget.

Coagulation

By means of influence on fine polluting inclusions of coagulators (electrolytes, surfactants, other compounds) there is an enlargement of the particles of impurities present in the composition of the spent oil.

Coagulation lasts about half an hour (it all depends on the conditions of use and the amount of reagent administered). The final stage of cleaning is settling, liquid run through filters or centrifugation.

Adsorption cleaning

Adsorbents can be used to clean the used oil, which, like magnets, attract polluting compounds. For this purpose, both natural substances (bleaching clays, bauxite, etc.) and synthetic materials are used.

car oil Regeneration

Cleaning is carried out either by simply mixing the oil with adsorbents (which is more economical), or by introducing cleaning elements towards the moving flow of liquid.

Important! When implementing this method of regeneration, a large number of toxic compounds are formed, which must be properly disposed of.

Ion-exchange purification

The ionites (hygroscopic gels) used for oil purification allow to remove acid pollution from the spent material, however resinous substances at this method are not removed from liquid. Subsequent filtering is used to eliminate them.

Removal of impurities is carried out by mixing the oil with ionites or passing it through a column with these elements.

Selective regeneration

This method of regeneration is based on the ability of oil pollutants (oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen compounds) to dissolve under the influence of special reagents (phenol, furfural, acetone, etc.).

Also, propane can be used to dissolve hydrocarbons, after which asphalt-based substances precipitate. This method is widely used in Italy and France. It is used to regenerate all-season oil with a high content of additives and resins.

Chemical cleaning methods

The principle of operation of these methods is based on the formation (after the introduction of the reagent into the oil) of substances easily removed from the oil.

Sulfuric acid Treatment

This method of regeneration is popular, but after processing the oil with sulfuric acid, acid tar is formed, which is a great danger to the environment and is difficult to dispose of. In addition, this type of cleaning does not allow you to remove all the dirt from the oil.

Hydrogenation

Purification of waste oil in this case is carried out by the interaction of impurities polluting the product with hydrogen. This method is characterized by greater environmental safety compared to adsorption and the use of sulfuric acid.

As a rule, the regeneration of waste oil is carried out by a combination of different cleaning methods, which allows you to recover liquids of different types and brands. The output of the base oil used for the manufacture of commercial product at the same time is 75...90% (depending on the method of cleaning, as well as the type and degree of contamination of the waste product).

Important! High-quality purified product can be obtained by organizing a separate collection of waste oil by grades and brands.

Today, manufacturers, including domestic ones, offer modular units for the regeneration of waste oil. The choice of equipment depends on the expected volume of regeneration and the required degree of automation. Accordingly, the price of the complex may be different.

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